Infectious erythema - symptoms and signs, treatment
Symptoms and signs, treatment of infectious erythema
Infectious erythema- acute infectious disease caused by parvovirus B19, leads to a slight disruption of well-being and a spotted or spotty-like rash, which first appears on the cheeks and then spreads primarily to open limb areas. The diagnosis is made clinically, treatment, as a rule, is not required.
The disease causes human parvovirus B19. Most cases occur in the spring, usually causing local outbreaks among children with a frequency every few years. Infection most likely occurs through airborne droplets, there is a high frequency of secondary infection among family members; the disease may be asymptomatic.
Parvovirus B19 causes a transient inhibition of erythropoiesis, usually a mild degree, and not manifested clinically, however, in patients with hemoglobinopathies or other types of anemia, a transient hemolytic crisis may develop.
Infectious erythema - symptoms and signs
The duration of the incubation period is from 4 to 14 days. Typical initial manifestations are non-specific flu-like symptoms. After a few days, a tight, erythema drainage and a symmetrical rash appear on the cheeks, which is most pronounced on the arms, legs and torso, and is usually absent on the palms and soles. Rash maculopapular, with a tendency to merge; elements of the rash form on the skin mesh and lace areas, slightly raised, spotty, with unchanged center, usually most pronounced in open areas of the body. Usually the rash lasts for 5-10 days, as well as the duration of the entire disease. However, the rash may reappear within a few weeks, this is provoked by sunlight, physical activity, hot weather, fever, or emotional stress. In adults, there is sometimes moderate pain and swelling in the joints, which may persist or recur for weeks or even months.
In immunocompromised patients, prolonged viremia may occur, leading to severe anemia.Infectious erythema can be transmitted transplacentally, sometimes leading to stillbirth or severe anemia of the fetus with widespread edema. However near1/2pregnant women are immune to parvovirus B19 due to previous illness. The risk of fetal death ranges from 5 to 9% with the disease of the mother with the highest risk for the disease during the 2nd trimester.
Infectious erythema - diagnosis and treatment
The appearance and nature of the spread of the rash are the only diagnostic signs; however, some enteroviruses can also cause a similar rash. Rubella can be excluded during serological tests; knowledge of the epidemiological history is also helpful. Serological testing is not mandatory in previously healthy children; At the same time, in children with a transient aplastic crisis or in adults with arthropathy, the presence of IgM antibodies to parvovirus B19 at the end of the acute period and the beginning of the recovery period is a strong confirmation of the diagnosis. Viremia can also be detected in the immunoprecipitation reaction or by molecular-biological methods,which are commonly used in patients with a transient aplastic crisis, with immunodeficiency and chronic aplastic anemia with only erythroid germ damage, as well as in infants with dropsy of the fetus or congenital infection.
Only symptomatic treatment of infectious erythema is necessary. Intravenous immunoglobulin was used to reduce the phase of viremia and to strengthen erythropoiesis in patients with immunodeficiency and chronic aplastic anemia with lesion of only the erythroid sprout.
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