Laparoscopy: before and after surgery
Laparoscopy may be indicated in cases of unexplained diagnosis in the area of the peritoneum. To date, this type of diagnosis is the most used in modern medicine.
The process of
The procedure requires the use of general anesthesia. Then a mini-hole is created in the navel through which gas is injected. Inside the abdominal cavity, two more (or more) incisions are made to enter the laparoscope and the manipulator (necessary for the study of displaced organs). The laparoscope is equipped with a video camera or a special lens for transmitting images to the screen.
You can watch a video on how laparoscopy is performed below.
Indications and contraindications
Among the indications are:
- obstruction of the fallopian tubes (allows you to install and resolve);
- endometriosis, ovarian cyst;
- diseases of the internal genital organs;
- secondary dysmenorrhea.
Also, the indication for laparoscopy is uterine fibroids.This method allows to eliminate tumors inside and on the surface. Removal of myoma node using this method is carried out as safely as possible, preserving all functions and without causing injuries.
Contraindications to the operation of an absolute nature:
- decompensated stage of diseases of the respiratory system;
- heart diseases;
- coma, shock;
- impaired blood clotting;
- infectious inflammations;
- asthma and its exacerbations;
- high blood pressure;
- hernia of the anterior abdominal wall.
Relative limitations for laparoscopy:
- malignant neoplasms in the ovaries;
- severe pathology of internal organs;
- abdominal adhesions;
- availability of from 1 to 2 liters of blood in the abdominal cavity.
Also contraindicated is cancer of the uterus or cervix. In case of successful removal of tumors, laparoscopy is possible.
Preparation for surgery
First of all, it is necessary to pass a series of tests and undergo various examinations. List of required surveys and studies:
- blood chemistry;
- urine and blood tests;
- blood group and rhesus factor;
- HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C tests;
- smear from the vagina;
- Ultrasound monitoring of the pelvic organs;
- consultation of the therapist.
Before the operation, the doctor gives mandatory recommendations.
1. It is necessary to prevent pregnancy during the planning of the operation.
2. The patient is obliged to sign the consent to the procedure after all explanations of the doctor. The same applies to anesthesia.
3. Before laparoscopy, the GIT is cleaned for better access and organ review.
4. It is forbidden to eat and drink on the day of surgery.
5. It is necessary to completely shave the hair in the groin and perineum.
6. In the case of indications, it is possible to assign leg bandaging with an elastic bandage or wearing compression garments.
After laparoscopy do not need to adhere to strict rules. You can walk in a few hours, but not at too great a distance, increase the distance should be gradual. Laparoscopy is practically non-traumatic for the muscles and there are no restrictions on physical activity. As for nutrition, a special diet is not required, you can take the same food as on normal days.Drug therapy is prescribed individually for each. About laparoscopy, patient reviews are mostly positive. The stitches are removed in about a week. All rehabilitation time passes quickly and seamlessly.
Among the complications possible:
- injury to organs due to improper introduction of equipment;
- the emergence of emphysema due to the introduction of gas into fatty tissue;
- grazing vessels and organs during surgery;
- bleeding during the recovery period.
It is worth noting that side effects occur very rarely.
Mode after surgery
Usually, after laparoscopy, there is no need to comply with bed rest for more than 24 hours. However, if desired, the patient may stay in the hospital for up to three days.
Admission of analgesics is not required, since pain after laparoscopy does not occur.
Sex life can begin no earlier than a month. Contraceptives are prescribed by a specialist.
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