Simple technology for pouring concrete floor
One of the important stages in the construction technology of a modern building is the pouring of the concrete floor in the future room. It is best to perform this part of the construction work after the completion of the laying of the basement of the building, if, of course, the weather favors. But in principle, you can do it later. Creating a soil base.
The fact is that the floor surface is usually made flush with the top of the base. This guideline allows you to determine at what depth inside the built-up space you need to prepare the earth foundation for the fill. It is very important to immediately remove the fertile soil layer throughout the territory being prepared for concreting. The earthen base should be 20 cm below the top of the basement, and in the case when it is required to make the floor warmed, the thickness of the insulation should be taken into account. After removal of the fertile layer may require or further deepening,or raising the level of the base surface using imported alumina.
If the soil in the built-up area is loose or the ground must be poured to the required level , then during the preparation of the base surface, sealing operations should be carried out using a plate compactor or a manual rammer.
It's important to take into account that ramming a large layer of land at once will not achieve the expected result, because of what in the future the floor can persist and cracks will appear in the concrete. The earth needs to be compacted as the backfill is poured every 5 cm of the layer being created. The formation of a sand pillow.
When the earth foundation is prepared, you can start pouring a layer of sand 10 cm thick. It does not hurt to stretch several parallel lines at the height of the plane of the surface of the created floor to perform the necessary measurements so that you can easily controlup to what level to make sanding.
It should be evenly distributed using the spades and the rule, as well as it is good to tamp as described above.
After the formation of the sand layer is completed, in principle, you can proceed to beta laying, but if it was supposed to make the floor with a heat-insulating layer, then it is necessary to lay a heater before pouring. When the floor is to be heated.
A suitable material with which to insulate the concrete floor in the house, is a normal or extruded polystyrene foam. The second option is more reliable, since it is much denser than the first, which reduces the risk of subsidence of the concrete layer, leading to deformation and cracking of the floor during operation of the building. Sheets of expanded polystyrene are simply placed on a sand pillow, trying to dock them so as not to leave any gaps between them. If necessary, parts of the appropriate dimensions are cut from the whole sheet to cover the missing areas. Over the foam does not hurt to put a waterproofing coating, for example, a dense oilcloth.
To load on the insulation during operation floor was distributed more evenly, it is necessary to place a metal mesh for reinforcement in the lower part of the concrete layer. To do this, you must put it on top of the foam before the start of the fill.
When there is a need for reinforcement.
In premises used for industrial purposes, the operational load on the floor can be quite large due to the movement of various transport and loading equipment or storage of heavy products. In this case, reinforcement of concrete is carried out in the process of pouring it.
To perform this task, you must first tie the frame of steel rods, the cross-sectional diameter of which is taken depending on the expected load during the floor operation. The frame is made lattice, welding or twisting with wire lengthwise and perpendicularly laid pieces of reinforcement, the distance between which is also determined by technological calculations of the necessary strength of the reinforced concrete structure.Installing beacons.
The next preparatory step on the way to flooring is installing guides, which allow you to set the height its surface, called lighthouses. According to them, with the help of the rule, concrete will be tightened, thanks to which its surface will be even. Usually, rectangular or round metal pipes are used as such beacons. But to install the pipe in the desired position, that is, in such a way that its top was at the same level as the top of the base, special props should be created from fresh concrete.To ensure that the struts over the entire area prepared for the fill have the same and the same height, you can use the level set in a fixed position to measure this parameter.
When backups under the beacons will be made, you can lay pipes on them, after which the concreted space will be ready for pouring.
The process of concreting.
It is important to properly organize the timely delivery of concrete to the place of work, since the concrete structure being created must be monolithic . If the pouring area is small, then you can knead the working mixture yourself with the help of several assistants. But pouring more space implies an increase in the number of workers and, possibly, the use of additional concrete mixers, since it will be difficult to make a concrete floor monolithic with small forces due to the fact that the production process will stretch to infinity. The easiest way is to order factory concrete, which will be delivered by a mixer to the construction site and using a pump, as well as a guide device,available in the kit this machine, unload directly into the filled space.
Of course, you need a few people who will quickly distribute the working substance with shovels.
Two more workers should gradually tighten the concrete along the lighthouses with the help of a rule or a flat board, Leveling its surface.
It is important to pull the rule not only along the pipe, but at the same time also to make movements resembling work with a saw. At the end of this procedure until the concrete mixture is still frozen, it is necessary to remove pipes that served as beacons and immediately fill with fresh concrete the grooves formed.
Then you need to wipe the concrete with a special device to separate the liquid film on its surface. Speaking fluid is a sign that it’s time to start ironing,that is, applying a thin layer of cement 2-3 mm thick on top. In the end, it remains only to smooth the surface of the floor, which can be done with the help of an apparatus commonly called a helicopter, after which the surface of the floor will look like it is shown in the photo below.
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