Why do we need white blood cells

What are leukocytes

White blood cells (leukocytes) differ from each other in their structure and functions. By structure, they are divided into agranulocytes and granulocytes. The main feature by which they differ is the presence or absence of specific granules, which perceive color differently. Alkaline-colored granulocytes are called basophils. Granulocytes, which are stained with acids, are called eosinophils. Granulocytes stained by two types of dyes are called neutrophils. Agranulocytes include monocytes and lymphocytes. They are in turn divided into B and T lymphocytes. The main function of neutrophils is phagocytosis, that is, the absorption of alien organisms or their parts. Neutrophils also secrete substances that have a bactericidal effect.Monocytes are actively involved in ensuring immunity, because in addition to phagocytosis, they produce substances that, in turn, stimulate the production of antibodies.
Eosinophils can actively move, absorb alien organisms. They capture and release histamine, this function makes these cells involved in inflammatory and allergic reactions. Of great importance in the body are basophils that have emerged from the bloodstream in the tissue (the so-called mast cells). These cells contain a lot of histamine, which causes swelling and helps to limit the spread of toxins and infections. T-lymphocytes have the ability to destroy bacteria and cancer cells. They affect the activity of B-lymphocytes, which in turn are responsible for humoral immunity (antibody production).

What is leukopenia and leukocytosis

The decrease in the number of leukocytes in the blood is called leukopenia, the increase is called leukocytosis. Leukopenia is an indicator of inhibition of bone marrow function as a result of the action of toxic substances, (benzene, arsenic, etc.), certain medications (chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, immuno, butadione, cyclophosphamide, etc.), viruses (viral hepatitis, influenza , measles, etc.), microbes (brucellosis, typhoid fever, etc.), X-rays, radiation, increase the function of the spleen.The normal number of leukocytes in the blood is 4.0-9.0x109 / l.
Absolute leukocytosis appears in acute inflammatory processes, acute bacterial infections, tissue necrosis, allergic conditions, hemorrhages in the brain and closed skull traumas, malignant tumors, shock, coma, acute blood loss. A significant increase in the number of white blood cells is observed with leukemia. Relative leukocytosis occurs as a result of the entry of leukocytes into the blood from the organs, which serve as a depot. It is observed after eating, cold and hot baths, intense muscular work, after strong emotions.

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